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A | B | C | D | E



A


all or none
An order type that the broker executes only if the trade can be executed for the full quantity specified. If a complete transaction is not executed, it will remain open for the time limit specified. See Fill or Kill.

全部完成或放棄買賣盤
經紀商只有在規定的全部數量都能執行時才執行的買賣指示類型。如果買賣指示不能全數執行,在規定的期限內,買賣指示將保持有效狀態。見全數執行或立刻取消。

American Depositary Receipt (ADR)
Receipt for shares of foreign-based companies that entitle the shareholder to all dividends and capital gains. ADRs allow Americans to buy shares of foreign-based corporations' securities at U.S. Exchanges instead of having to go to overseas exchanges.
美國預託證券
授權股東享受所有股息及資本收益的海外公司的股份證券。美國預託證券容許美國人在美國證券交易所購買海外公司的證券,而不必前往海外證券交易所。

annuity
An investment in which the policy holder makes a lump-sum or installment payment to an insurance company and receives income at retirement.
年金
由保險單持有人一次或分期支付保險公司,並在退休後領取收益的一種投資。

ask
The lowest price at which someone is willing to sell a security.
賣出價
投資者願意賣出證券的最低價格。

average maturity
The lifetime of a bond, concluding when the final payment of that obligation is due.

平均期限
債券的壽命,在最終付款責任到期時結束。

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B


back-end load
A fee charged by a mutual fund when you sell your shares. See Mutual Funds Glossary.
贖回佣金
在閣下賣出股票時,由互惠基金收取的費用。見互惠基金詞彙。

beta
A statistical measure that shows a fund's volatility relative to the benchmark index over the last 36 months. By definition, the beta of the S & P 500 is 1.0. A fund with a beta of 1.10 tends to perform 10% better than the market in up markets and 10% worse in down markets. Usually, higher betas represent riskier investments. For funds that are not broadly diversified, a low beta may only indicate that the fund's volatility relative to the market is low, not that the fund has low risk.

Beta
說明基金在過去三十六個月內相對基準指數波幅的統計量度。根據其定義,標準普爾 500 Beta 值為 1.0。如果某基金的 Beta 值為 1.10,則說明在上行市場,基金的表現較市場好 10%,對於下行市場,差 10%。一般而言,Beta 值越大,投資的風險也越大。對於沒有廣泛分散的基金,較低的 Beta 值可能只是說明該基金相對市場的波幅較小,並不是說基金的風險較小。

bid
The highest price at which someone is willing to buy a security.

買入價
投資者願意買入某證券的最高價格。

blue chip
A common stock of an established company that has a long record of stable growth.

藍籌股
有長期穩定增長記錄的公司的普通股。

bond
A long-term debt security of the Government or a corporation with maturity of 10 years or more from the issue date. Interest is usually paid every six months and its face value returned, repaid at maturity. The minimum denomination is US$1,000, with $1,000 increments thereafter.

債券
政府或企業的長期債務證券,自發行之日起 10 年或更長時間到期。利息一般每六個月支付一次,其面值在到期後償還。債券的最小面值為 1,000 美元,之後的面值以 1,000 美元為單位遞增。

buy
Purchase of a security.
買入
購買證券。

buy to close
You "close" a short option position when you buy it back. You must be pre-approved by Schwab to trade options. See Option.
平倉買入
投資者買入期權,「補平」期權短倉。投資者交易期權,須經嘉信理財事先批准。見期權。

buy to open
You "open" a long position when you buy an option. You must be pre-approved by Schwab to trade options. See Option.

開倉買入
投資者買入期權,「開設」期權長倉。投資者交易期權,須經嘉信理財事先批准。見期權。

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C


call option
Gives its buyer the right to buy or sell 100 shares of the underlying security at a fixed price before a specified expiration date. Call buyers hope the price of the stock will rise. Call sellers hope the price will stay the same or go down. You must be pre-approved by Schwab to trade options. See Put Option.
買入期權
給買方一個在到期日前以固定價格買入或賣出 100 股特定證券的權利。買入期權的買方會期望股價上漲,而買入期權的賣方會期望價格維持不動或下跌。您必須獲得事先批准才能在嘉信理財交易期權。請參閱賣出期權。

capital appreciation
The growth of the earnings on an investment's principals.
資本增值
一筆投資本金的收益成長。

capital gain
Arises when an investment is sold at a higher price than originally paid. In a mutual fund, capital gains are created when the fund buys and sells underlying securities at a premium over purchase price. These gains are then distributed to unitholders at least annually. Unitholders can also earn capital gains by redeeming their fund shares at higher prices than they originally paid.

資本利得
當一項投資以高於原有付出價格賣出時,就會產生資本利得。互惠基金的資本利得在基金以高於其原始成本的價格買賣所投資的股票產生。這些資本利得必須配發給基金持有人至少每年一次。基金持有人以高於原始購買價格買回基金時也會產生資本利得。

certificate of deposit
Debt instruments issued by banks and savings and loans. Maturities range from overnight to many years. Certificates of Deposit are issued at par and pay fixed interest at intervals or maturity. Can be brokered through a brokerage firm.
定期存單
由銀行存款機構所發出的一種債權憑證。到期日可由隔夜到數年不等。定期存單以面額發行並以固定期間或至到期日時付息。定期存單可透過證券經紀商仲介交易。

closed end mutual funds
A mutual fund that issues a set number of shares, which then are only re-sold on the secondary market exchanges like regular stock shares. See Mutual Funds Glossary.

封閉型互惠基金
封閉型互惠基金只發行固定股數,像一般股票,只在次級市場的證券交易所交易。

common stock
Securities that represent an ownership interest in a corporation.

普通股
代表對一個公司所擁有的所有權。

compounding
The computation of interest paid using the principal plus the previously earned interest.
複利
以原有本金加上所生利息再繼續孳息稱為複利。

corporate bond
Debt obligations issued by corporations as an alternative to offering equity ownership by issuing stock. Like U.S. Treasuries, most corporate bonds pay semi-annual interest and promise to return their principal when they mature. Maturities range from 1 to 30 years.

公司債券
一個公司除了發行代表所有權的股票之外,也可發行的一種債權證券。就像國庫券,大部分的公司債券每半年付息一次並於到期償還本金。到期日可為一年至三十年不等。

custodial account
An account for the benefit of a minor with an adult as the custodian.

監護人帳戶
以未成年人之利益為出發但以成人為帳戶監護人的一種帳戶。

current yield
The annual interest on a bond divided by the current market price.
當期收益率
債券的年度利息除以目前的市場價格。

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D


day (only) order
An order condition that causes your order to be canceled at the end of the current day's trading if the specified limits can't be met.

當日有效訂單
一種訂單附有於當日交易結束如果所設定條件未能成交則立即取消的條件。

defined benefit plan
A company retirement plan in which you expect to receive a fixed amount on a regular basis from your employer, i.e. a pension. The employer is responsible for investing.

固定收益退休計劃
一種公司的退休計劃,您將會自您的雇主定期收到固定金額,例如退休金。雇主必須負責投資。

dilution
Effect on earnings per share and book value per share if all convertible securities were converted or all warrants or stock options were exercised.
稀釋
所有可轉換證券都進行轉換或股票期權執行之後,對每股盈餘以及帳面價值所產生的影響。

distribution
The income or capital gain made by a mutual fund that is paid to the fund's investors.

分配
互惠基金的收入或資本利得支付給基金投資人的動作稱為分配。

diversification
The allocation of assets among various types of investments.

分散
將投資分散在不同資產類別的動作稱為分散。

dividend amount
Value of last quarterly cash dividend or the number of shares an investor receives for each share owned in a stock dividend.

股息金額
每一位投資人所收到每一股所可收到的前一季的現金股息或股票股息股數。

dividend reinvestment
Dividends that are reinvested in the security that generated them.
股息再投資
將某一證券所配發的股息再投資買入該證券。

dollar cost averaging
Buying securities at scheduled intervals at with the same dollar amount.

平均成本法
以固定金額每隔一段固定時間持續買入證券。

do not reduce (DNR)
You may add this special condition on a limit order to buy, a stop order to sell, or on a stop-limit order to sell. This condition specifies that you do not want your limit or stop price reduced when the stock goes ex-dividend and the market price of the stock is reduced by the amount of the dividend.

除息維持原價
您可以增設這項特定的條件在一筆限價買入訂單、止損賣出訂單或止損限價賣出訂單。本項條件說明在股票市場價格依除息金額向下調整時,您的限定價格或止損價格維持原訂價格不向下調整。

dow jones industrial average (DJIA)
Measure of the performance of the collection of 30 "blue-chip" stocks traded on NYSE, considered the leaders of the market. 

道瓊工業平均指數
評估對於列入指數的三十家在紐約證券交易所交易的藍籌股,被視為市場的指標。

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E


earnings per share
Four times the last quarter's earning divided by the number of shares outstanding.

每股盈利
上一季度的盈利乘四除以未結股數。

earnings per share date
Date of last earnings announcement.

每股盈利日
上一次的盈利公告日期。

electronic funds transfer
Transferring funds between accounts and firms electronically.

電子轉帳
以電子方式在帳戶及公司間轉帳資金。

ex-dividend date
Date a split or dividend is reflected in the price of the security (if you buy a stock on the ex-dividend date, you are not entitled to the dividend); for splits, this is the trading day after the distribution is made.

除息日
股份拆細或股息在證券價格中有所反映的日期 (如果投資者在除息日買入股票,將無權享受股息);對於拆股而言,這是指分派後的交易日。

Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs)
Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) are index funds or trusts that are listed on an exchange each with a unique symbol and can be traded through a broker any time during market trading hours. ETFs allow investors to buy or sell shares in the collective performance of an entire stock portfolio or index as a single security. Most ETFs can be traded as little as one share and can even be sold short or bought on margin.

交易所買賣基金 (Exchange Traded Funds – ETFs)
交易所買賣基金是以指數或信託基金為基礎,並在交易所掛牌的基金。每隻 ETFs 都附有特定的代號,投資者可在交易時段內自由進行買賣。透過 ETFs,投資者以單一證券便可買賣『一籃子』反映某個市場指數,行業或地區的股票。即使少至一股,大部份 ETFs 亦可作交易。投資者亦可將其沽空或透過保證金買入。

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